WTO dispute settlement system. Although the rulings are not bindi
ng, most WTO members take them seriously and view the process as a normal part of their
participation in the multilateral trading system, regardless of whether they win or lose any particular case. In do
ing so, they show their respect for the WTO’s principles of consultation and consensus.
China had filed 17 cases with the WTO as of Ap
ril 2018, of which eight had been closed. At the same time, 27 cases had been filed a
gainst China with 23 closed. The United States has had more cases filed against it than any other member state
in the WTO, and it lost quite a number of these cases. In 2016, for example, the WTO ruled against the Unite
d States with regard to a complaint from China in 2013 that it had violated WTO rules by imposing anti-dumping duties
on a number of industries, including machinery, electronics, light industry, metals, and mining.